Education Glossary

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Definitions Starting with "s"

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Term Definition
Same-Day Substitution

Changes over the course of a single trading day within a margin account that do not result in a change to the account's net balance.


A price chart pattern where a security's price falls to a low, then increases from that low, suggesting the down trend has concluded.

Savings Bond

U.S. government issued bond sold to the public.


A trading strategy designed to accrue trading profit on small incremental price changes in a security, resulting in a higher volume of trades placed, rather than waiting on large movements in price.

Sector Fund

A mutual fund which invests entirely within a singular industry sector.

Secular Trend

A variable with a consistent directional behavior over a long period of time.


An alternate term for investment instruments (debt and equity) transacted in exchange markets.

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

A government agency that regulates the securities industry to protect investors.

Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC)

A non-profit insurance company that provides protection for investors' accounts with brokerage firms.

Serial Bond

A bond that reaches maturity over several years.

Serial Correlation

The comparison of a value to itself over successive time periods.


Occuring a few days after trade exececution, this is the exchange process that designates when payment is made and shares are delivered.

Share Repurchase

The act of a company to buy back its own stock shares in the open market to reduce Shares Outstanding and increase Earnings Per Share, which ultimately seeks to drive the stock price higher.


An individual which owns shares of ownership in a company.

Shares Outstanding

The amount of Common Stock shares owned by investors.

Sharpe Ratio

A technical formula designed by William F. Sharpe that calculates the average return minus the risk-free return, divided by the standard deviation of the return, on an investment.

Shooting Star

A Candlestick bar chart price pattern indicating a reversal, identified by a short black body with a long wick upwards.

Short Covering

The action of a trader to buy securities that they previously sold short, in order to close the position.

Short Sell

A trading strategy of selling a borrowed security with a purpose of re-purchasing at a lower price for profit. This is the opposite of entering a Long position.

Short Term Bond

A bond that reaches maturity within 5 years.

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